History of ADR in education (1968-1998)
Rough Chronology of Events Related to Campus Conflict Resolution and Mediation Program Development
1967- Universities begin to experiment with the use of campus ombudspersons, beginning with Michigan State University, to respond to growing student unrest on campus.
1969- An early conference entitled The Ombudsman in Higher Education: Advocate or Subversive Bureaucrat is held to explore the role of the campus ombuds.
1971- 69 colleges or universities have appointed ombudsman officials by this time
1973- California Caucus of College and University Ombuds (CCCUO) established, annual meetings begin at Asilomar Conference Center
1974- The number of campus Ombuds exceeds 100 (eventually leveling out at a current estimate of 200 programs)
1979- University of Hawaii begins development of a campus-based mediation program
1979- Center for Mediation in Higher Education established by American Arbitration Association to encourage use of mediation for faculty, staff and administrative grievances
1980- Special issue of New Directions in Higher Education journal on Campus Conflict Management published, focusing mainly on staff and faculty concerns, but includes an article on new U. Mass. Amherst Legal Studies Mediation project serving students and one on the current state of student grievance procedures
1980- University of Hawaii and University of Massachusetts campus mediation projects underway, Grinnell College, Brigham Young University, Oberlin College soon follow (focus is mainly on student disputes, but other types included as well)
1981- Folger and Schubert’s survey of 741 colleges and universities finds that over half of the institutions had implemented some kind (formal or ad hoc) of third party procedure for handling student initiated grievances
1983- Oberlin College hosts 2 ½ day residential life colloquium focusing on use of mediation in campus residence halls
1983- Maria Sakovich publishes working paper modifying the San Francisco Community Boards model for use on college campuses, some technical support offered to interested campuses by SFCB
1984- NAME (National Association for Mediation in Education) is formed and has First National Conference (focus is strictly on elementary & secondary schools)
1984- William and Flora Hewlett Foundation begins to fund university-based conflict resolution theory-building centers
1984- McCarthy et al’s Managing Faculty Disputes published by Jossey-Bass
1985- University of Massachusetts Mediation Project and National Institute for Dispute Resolution (NIDR) publish Peaceful Persuasion: a guide to creating university and college mediation and dispute resolution programs
1985- University of Massachusetts Mediation Program holds Student Affairs Administrators workshop to encourage adoption of mediation techniques by Student Affairs personnel
1985- University and College Ombuds Association (UCOA) formally established
1986- Some workshops on managing disputes in higher education appear at 3rd National Conference on Peacemaking and Conflict Resolution (NCPCR), emphasis is mainly on ombudsing
1986- Folger and Shubert publish NIDR-funded report Resolving Student Initiated Grievances in Higher Education
1987- Chronicle of Higher Education publishes a story “Colleges are Trying New Ways to Settle Campus Grievances: Mediation Techniques Used As Alternative to Litigation,” indicating new interest in campus mediation
1988- Videocast of 3-hr Conflict Resolution in Higher Education seminar featuring Howard Gadlin and Janet Rifkin is broadcast by National University Teleconferencing Network (produced by Virgil Peterson, U of West Virginia).
1988- PBS FRONTLINE series airs “Racism 101” exploring the disturbing increase in racial incidents and violence on America's college campuses.
1989- NCPCR in Montreal includes a preconference training on how to establish a Campus Mediation Center, and a regular conference workshop on ADR in Higher Education. (Strong interest is expressed in building a more formal national campus mediation network and conference).
1990- First National Conference on Campus Mediation Programs hosted by Syracuse Campus Mediation Program (107 people attend, 18 campus mediation programs identified as in existence at this time).
1990- Conflict and Change Center at Univ. of Minnesota includes a Higher Education Track in their Integrating Conflict Management Into Planned Organizational Change Conference.
1990- Chronicle of Higher Education publishes a story “Negotiation, Not Violence, Is the Rule Today When Students Clash with Administrators” noting shift away from use of police and force to end student protests
1991- Second Annual (Inter)national Campus Mediation Conference held at University of Waterloo, in Ontario (~100 people attend).
1991- Characteristics of the 35 known campus mediation programs documented in 3rd edition of Warters and Hedeen survey.
1991- Special Issue of NAME’s Fourth R published on Conflict Resolution and Higher Education
1991- In Gmelch's survey of 808 department chairs at 101 research and doctoral-granting universities, chairs identify intercollegial conflict as THE major category of stress.
1992- Third National Campus Mediation Conference held at the University of Oregon, Eugene
1993- Fourth National Campus Mediation Conference held at St. Mary's University, TX, where decision is made by Higher Ed network to formally affiliate with NAME
1993- American Association of Law Schools (AALS) new ADR Section lists more than 30 law schools that currently have or are developing mediation clinics that mediate cases referred from local courts
1994- Campus Conflict Resolution Network (CCRNet) listserv discussion list is established at Nova Southeastern University (~350 participants, relatively low traffic list)
1994- Network of Campus Mediators formerly joins NAME and hosts track of workshops at NAME's National Conference in Amherst. NAME newsletter the Fourth R begins to publish regular section for higher education members (Estimates suggest 50+ campus mediation programs in existence by this
1994- Association for Student Judicial Affairs (ASJA) passes formal resolution supporting the use of mediation by university student judicial programs
1994- University of Georgia System Board of Regents supports the creation a Blue Ribbon Committee to study alternative forms of dispute resolution for Georgia State system, then passes Resolution for a System-wide ADR Initiative
1995- UCOA publishes The Ombuds Handbook: A Practical Guide to Establishing and Operating an Ombuds Office on a College or University Campus
1995- NAME conference in Seattle again includes Higher Education track
1996- NAME merges with NIDR, creates Conflict Resolution Education Network (CREnet)
1996- All major North American ombuds associations hold “Super Conference” to explore the development of shield laws to protect ombuds confidentiality rights
1997- Association for Student Judicial Affairs establishes formalized On Campus ADR Subcommittee, hosts post-conference mediation trainings for ASJA members
1997- Campus Mediation Resources Web Site established at Wayne State University
1997- NIDR estimates that there are over 8,500 elementary and secondary school-based conflict resolution programs in the United States, creating a feeder system into colleges
1998- CREnet and ASJA form joint committee to explore development of Standards of Practice for Campus Mediation Programs
1998- Invitational Symposium on Best Practices in Higher Education Dispute Systems Design hosted by Georgia State University
1998- First Summer Institute on Dispute Resolution in Higher Education held at Wayne State University
1998- Approximately 165 campuses now have documented campus mediation projects
1998- The National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) awards first prize ($10,000) to a campus conflict resolution project (University of Texas, San Antonio) in their annual Higher Education Awards Program recognizing initiatives that improve the quality and reduce the cost of higher education programs and services.